Malware, the word itself is derived from two words malicious software. Thus a malware actually represents a malicious code. A malware can be defined as a software or firmware that is intended to perform unauthorized and unwanted process that will result in confidentiality, integrity and availability of information. A malware code can be written in any language and for any device including computers, PDA’s, mobile phones etc.
Though it is defined that a malware affects on confidentiality, integrity and availability of information, its adverse results are not only limited to information security. It may also result in loss of any digital/electronic property, stealing of information, penalizing dependability, usability, performance and privacy. Privacy is biggest factor that comes in play today due to malware . You may have noticed that malware is most of the times interchangeably used with virus, its just because virus was the very first type of malware, malware is also known as badware or harmware.
Classification Of Malwares:
Better known as Vital Information Resource Under Seize(VIRUS) is very first form of computer threat. They can replicate themselves and can also cause severe damage to data and information. They can hide themselves in other files and can also go in stealthy mode to avoid detection. Most of the times a VIRUS is a executable code.
Worms are just capable of everything that a virus is capable of but its main feature is it can easily replicate itself on network and hence worm is also known as network worm. A worm is able to creep easily among systems as hence known as worm. A worm always needs a vector for creeping like email attachments, IM chat clients or IRC.
Trojan is a malicious program/code which is used for remote access to target computer and then attack using unauthorized access to target or victim’s computer and causes damage to the system. Trojan is a small hidden code inside another program that’s why it easily enters system without knowledge of computer user.
A spy ware is a piece of malicious code installed in system to monitor activities of person using the system. Basically idea of spyware also came from system monitoring tools.A spyware is capable of logging key strokes, also it can take screen shots and if you have Internet connection then it can even mail logs to specified email-address or transfer logs via ftp to designated location. Beyond just monitoring it can record your computing habits including which site you browse more, at what time you prefer to be on system or amount of time you spend on computer. A spyware can be used to track all information about your social-networking and IRC(Internet Relay Chat) Clients including all major and minor chat clients example: Google Talk, Rediff Messenger, Yahoo Messenger, Microsoft Live Chat absolutely every thing related to IRC client is exposed to spyware.
Backdoors can be termed as a malicious code which gives access to an intruder to your system. A backdoor can provide partial or complete access to an attacker to your system. A backdoor can provide an attacker almost unlimited rights as an administrator and allow him/her to install applications and malicious code in your system. A backdoor is generally used to access system remotely and steal personal information including e-mail id’ s, members information and credit card numbers.
Root-Kit grants almost unlimited rights to attacker and attacker has full access to all hardware, software and services running on victim’s system. An attacker can use Root-Kit to install backdoor or key logger on remote system. Root-Kit hides itself as system program and some times may not even appear in process lists.
Embedded Malicious Code:
As stated earlier a malware can be software or firmware, it must be clear a system hardware or a software might be already embedded with malicious code.
They are malicious codes used for performing crimes related to computers. It may include use of one or more malware already available in list.
Ransomware comprises a class of malware which restricts access to the computer system that it infects, and demands a ransom paid to the creator of the malware in order for the restriction to be removed. Some forms of ransomware encrypt files on the system’s hard drive (cryptoviral extortion), while some may simply lock the system and display messages intended to coax the user into paying.